Saturday, March 7, 2020

Populations in freshwater Ecosystems Essay Example

  Populations in freshwater Ecosystems Essay Example   Populations in freshwater Ecosystems Essay Populations in freshwater Ecosystems Essay Essay Topic: Ecosystems Aim: To compare two or more fresh water ecosysterms at the wetlands center. In this study I will want to compare two ecosystems. I predict that pollution in the water will be quite minimal because the freshwater habitats are under conservation . Also the other reason being that the people working on the habitats will try to keep it a healthy habitat with a good balance at each trophic level so that the animals will live. Ipredict that the nitrate levels to be quite high in a habitat with other animals such as ducks. The reason being that the excrement will cause the process of eurification and make the levels higher. I also predict that the Oxygen levels will be quite high (about 8 parts per million), because the conservationists may clean out the excrement .For a healthy habitat the abiotic factors are: * The light level must be good so that- plants can photosynthesize and dont decompose and cause the microbes to use the oxygen. * Temperature is important so that- if the water is too cold the anmals will die and decay and the same if it is too warm. * Flow rate of the water is important so that- the habitat isnt destroyed by the fast water flow. * Nitrate level is essencial- Too much nitrogen is a problem caused by the polluton of algae which restricts the light, this kills the organisms underneeth causing defecation and making organic remains. Then the nitrifying bacteria make nitrates out of the ammonium compuonds. * Oxygen levels- could be a problem if there is the pollution of algae (see nitrate levels), or if there ifs something decomposing then microbes will use up the oxygen. For my investigation I will find the nitrate level by using testing strips and oxyen level by winklers method find the parts per million (ppm). The biotic factors are: * Types of plans- blanket weed and duck weed are both indications of a habitat with low ligh or in the danger of losing light. Mill foil is a good plants as it oxygenates the water. * Features and adaptations of animals- this is something that I will show later on in my investigation. * The number and types of animals- This table shows what species are in high, low or intermediate pollution.(next page) I will look at all three of these biotic factors in my investigation. I predict the more animals there are the less polluted it is because there Is enough oxygen, light, for the organisms to live. I will use various techniqus to examin the different organisms. I will take a sample fron the top, middle and bottom layer of the habitat to get a clearer view. Farmyard freshwater habitat This habitat was shared with some gese aswell as all the animals in the water. This ment that there was a lot of excrement. I was surprised to find out that eventhough there was a lot of excrement, the nitrate level was 0 and the phosphate level was high. The reason being that the water was filterd and removed the nitrates. The oxygen level was also high 9.1 parts per million, due to the water being filtered. The animals that I found ment that habitat was ok, although there was a leech there were not enough to indicate that the habitat was very polluted. The duck weed and algae also indicated the same thing. In the habitat I found: Plants- duck weed and algae Animals- Daphnia, cyclops, leeches and spring tails. Animal What depth found in Number pr sample (A4 paper size tray) estimate Daphnia Top(T), middle(M) and Bottom(B) T= 3500 M= 7000 B= 3000 Cyclops T,M,B T= 100 M= 80 B= 40 Spring tails M M= 2 Leeches B B= 1 Small freshwater habitat This habitat was smaller but deeper thatn the other habitat. It also did not share the habitat with any other animals. This ment that the water would be cleaner thatn the other habitat. This showed in the type of animals and the oxygen level being 9.2ppm. The nitrogen level was 0 again due to the water being filtered. He indications of this habitat being clean was the growth of mill foil and water mites. Plants- mill foil and algae Animals- flat worm, water mite, cyclops, water snail and water flea. Animal What depth found in Number pr sample (A4 paper size tray) estimate Flat worm T 1 Water mite T 1 Cyclops T,B T= 50 B=40 Water snail M M= 1 Water flea M,B M= 20 B= 10 Here is a food web for fresh water habitats: Daphnia flat worm Planarians have extraordinary powers of regeneration and they normally reproduce by pulling in two. The fragments then regenerate their missing parts. water mite Water Mites have a globular, sack-like body and are related to spiders. They have eight legs and a line that separates their thorax from their abdomen. Some water mites are parasitic and suck off the gills of fresh water clams and mussels. Some water mites have special hairs on their legs that help them swim. Cyclops is a genus of copepods named for the animals single eyespot, reminiscent of the one-eyed monster in Greek mythology. Although most species of Cyclops are marine, many are commonly found in quiet freshwater habitats. Common Name: Fresh Water Snail or Planorbis Scientific Name: Planorbis leavis Taxonomy: Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata aquatica Planorbidae Physical Description: This snail appears like a smaller and darker colored version of the garden snail. They have a spiral shell that is almost spherical and a body that is the same color as raw liver. Their shells are a lighter dark brown than the bodies. Behavior: This snail spends its life under the water in calm pools. They stick to rocks and feed on the algae and bacteria that grow on them. Breeding takes place in the spring, and the snails are often hermaphroditic, but still require another mate for fertilization. Prey and Predators: Crayfish, skunks, opossums, and amphibians will eat these small gastropods. The planorbis is hardly an aggressive predator, but they eat the microscopic organisms with less intelligence than themselves. Signs of Existence: These snails can be found on any hard surfaces in the calm parts of the water. They share the same pools as many crayfish, but are more easily spotted because of their large numbers. water flea Water fleas belong to the Crustacea, a large group of jointed limbed animals, most of which live in water. Water fleas are placed in the order Cladocera and are probably called fleas because they move through the water by a sort of hopping. Water fleas are very common in fresh water, in Britain you can find about 80 different species, in The Netherlands about a 100 species. Many of them are rare. The chief characteristic of the water fleas is that the main part of the body is enclosed in a kind of shell, with the appearance of two lids, but made of one piece. Because you can see through them, you can study for instance the beating of the heart and follow the course of the blood cells round part of the body. Their sizes differ from several hundred microns to more than five millimeter for the larger species. The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called winter eggs; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond. leeches Leeches are classified as annelids, or segmented worms. They are related to earthworms and share many traits. They are found in shallow ponds, lakes, and marshes. Some leeches have even been found to live in small desert water holes as well as in antarctic waters. Most leeches live in water; however, some leeches are amphibious. Other leeches are called land leeches and live in moist regions around the world. Leeches can be found nearly every place there is water. Shallow ponds, lakes, and marshes are popular leech collecting sites. The best time for leech collecting is during the spring and summer. Most leeches are nocturnal and avoid light. Leeches can often be found in shady areas of ponds or in dark places under rocks, logs, and debris of the bottom of lakes. spring tails Springtails sometimes cause alarm to homeowners when seen outdoors in enormous numbers, appearing as piles of soot in driveways, backyards, on mud puddle surfaces, etc. Occasionally, they enter the home where dampness occurs such as in basements, cellars, bathrooms, and kitchens, especially near drains, leaking water pipes, sinks, and in the soil of over-watered house plants. They usually appear in the spring and early summer but can be found all year round. Some are known as snow fleas, appearing on the top of snow during late winter and early spring. These very small, leaping insects do not bite humans, spread disease, nor damage household furnishings. They are usually a nuisance by their presence. Springtails are minute, wingless insects about 1/16 to 1/8 inch (1 to 2 mm) long. Colors vary from white, gray, yellow, orange, metallic green, lavender to red with some being patterned or mottled. They get their name from the ability to catapult themselves (leap) through the air three to four inches by means of a taillike mechanism (furcula) tucked under the abdomen. When disturbed, this appendage functions as a spring, propelling them into the air away from the danger source. Young resemble adults except for size and color. Eggs are spherical. Because both habitats are in conservaton and filtered the nitrate level is 0. The health of the pond is not normally that good in the city due to the pollution given off by cars and so on. For more accurate readings of the animals I could have calculated the sizes more accuraltely. This could have an effect on my results.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Strategic Management of Healthcare Organizations Essay

Strategic Management of Healthcare Organizations - Essay Example that a country does in this regard is directly proportional to the results that it expects in the long run, through the different healthcare insurance programs, medication regimes and so on and so forth. These measures testify the attention paid towards the basic human life which is a very significant step within any state, country or society for that matter. In essence, any set of values and beliefs make up a culture. On the same pretext, an organizational culture is a set of values, morals, beliefs, traditions and norms which come from the industry specific regimes as well as that from the society under which it exists in the first place. Thus it would not be wrong here to suggest that the organizational cultures are dependent on the society’s undertakings and the industrial influences at the same time. What is most important is how the two shape up the organizational culture at the very end and take the organization one step ahead in its different processes, activities and undertakings. In this context, cultural and structural changes within healthcare organizations are usually manifested in with a lot of resentment and threats as the workers do not seem to come to terms with the amendments. In the case of the healthcare strategic management, structural changes are indeed the order of the day from time to time so that innovatio n could be given room – which indeed would enhance the healthcare standards prevalent in the said healthcare facility and thus benefit the whole society. The significant aspect lies on the basis of the healthcare organizations understanding that the changing cultures bring about an imperative basis within its regimes to exist in the most basic sense. One must understand that the healthcare organization cannot exist in seclusion and it has to remain in constant touch with the society in which it exists and the industry under which it finds competitors for its own selves and the strategic alliances, mergers and unities that form as a

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Abstract Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Abstract - Essay Example Modern management will have to adapt to the challenges of the present as well as the future, according to change brought in by rapidly evolving technologies such as the internet. The conventions and rules created by theorists back in the 20th century, although redundant and inefficient, still continue to drive the management strategies of almost all business organizations. Hamel asserts that management is now out of date because there have been no great breakthroughs in management practices that have revolutionary impact on business. It is not the operating or the business model but its management model that limits the performance of a business. Innovation in management practices has the potential of generating long-term advantages for a business. Thus, it is concluded that business organizations have to rework their management practices in line with the changing demands of the 21st century and with the current technological and economic

Monday, January 27, 2020

Advantages And Limitations Of Different Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

Advantages And Limitations Of Different Operating Systems Computer Science Essay 1.The majority of Linux variants are available for free or at a much lower price than Microsoft Windows. 2.Linux is and has always been a very secure Operating System. Although it still can be attacked when compared to Windows, it much more secure. 3. The majority of Linux variants and versions are notoriously reliable and can often run for months and years without needing to be rebooted. DISADVANTAGE OF LINUX : 1.Although the majority Linux variants have improved dramatically in ease of use, Windows is still much easier to use for new computer users. 2.Linux has a large variety of available software programs, utilities, and games. However, Windows has a much larger selection of available software. 3.Linux companies and hardware manufacturers have made great advancements in hardware support for Linux and today Linux will support most hardware devices. However, many companies still do not offer drivers or support for their hardware in Linux. ADVANTAGE OF WINDOWS : 1.Microsoft has made several advancements and changes that have made it a much easier to use Operating System, and although arguably it may not be the easiest Operating System, it is still Easier than Linux. 2.Because of the large amount of Microsoft Windows users, there is a much larger selection of available software programs, utilities, and games for Windows. 3.Microsoft Windows includes its own help section, has vast amount of available online documentation and help, as well as books on each of the versions of Windows. DISADVANTAGE OF WINDOWS : 1.Microsoft Windows can run between $50.00 $150.00 US dollars per each license copy. 2.Although Microsoft Windows has made great improvements in reliability over the last few versions of Windows, it still cannot match the reliability of Linux. 3.Although Windows does have software programs, utilities, and games for free, the majority of the programs will cost anywhere between $20.00 $200.00+ US dollars per copy. 4.Although Microsoft has made great improvements over the years with security on their Operating System, their Operating System continues to be the most vulnerable to viruses and other attacks. 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What this means for the user is that you can use a number of programs at the same time using only a modest level of physical memory. The system can handle several programs at once without severely pulling on the systems resources. Advantage: Toolbox This operating system offers a rich collection of small utilities and commands that are designed to carry out specific tasks well rather than being cluttered up with a variety of special but insignificant options. Unix acts as a well-stocked toolbox rather than attempting to do everything at once. Advantage: Customization Unix has the ability to string different utilities and commands together in an unlimited number of configurations in order to accomplish a variety of complicated tasks. This operating system is not limited to any pre-configured menus or combinations as most ordinary personal computer systems normally are. Advantage: Portability Unix is available for use on a variety of different types of machines, making it one of the most portable operating systems in existence. Unix can be run on both PC and Macintosh computers and many other computing machines as well. Disadvantage: Interface The traditional interface for the Unix operating system is command line based, and this command line shell interface may be hostile to the casual user. Unix was developed for use by programmers and serious computer users rather than casual users. A graphical user interface (GUI) is also available, but the traditional Unix interface is command line only. Disadvantage: Special Commands Commands required by the command line interface often make use of cryptic naming schemes, and do not give much information to notify a user of what they are doing. Many commands in the Unix interface require the use of special characters. Small, normally insignificant typos can have much greater effects and unexpected results on Unix machines. Disadvantage: Overwhelming to Novices While the richness of utilities offered by Unix is a benefit or advantage to many, this may be overwhelming to a novice user. The Unix operating system is not simple by any means, and may be daunting and overwhelming to some users. 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Ùâ‚ ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ™â‚ ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒâ„¢Ã¢â€š ¬ Mac os Advantages: More Stable More Dependable More visually appealing More user friendly just works Simplifies a lot of things Less prone to virus, trojans, etc Less prone to hardware issues Disadvantages: More pricey Less control over your computer Less software options Less hardware options Harder to personalize Hardware issues are MUCH more severe when happens More expensive software My own words about mac Advantages: Almost 0% Virus Un-often Crash High Definition Better And Useful Apps For Developers, Musicians, Photographer, Director, etc ( Like Adobe CS5 ) User-Friendly Less Chemicals More Battery Life Compatible With Many USB Drivers, Music Interface, etc. Has Better Free Applications ( Like Imovie, Iphoto, Garageband, IDVD, Iweb ) Unexpensive MAC OS X Software More Advance Technology Neat / Awesome Looking Best Resolution For Mac 27 ( Maybe the best resolution because it has Full HD or better. ) Disadvantage: Expensive Less Games, Applications 1 Huge Crash May Destroy Your Mac / Cause It To Freeze! Difficult To Upgrade ( I think it deletes your file if you do not make a backup when you upgrade, so its like you will be needing to buy a new mac. ) Annoying Rotating Disk Ball ( When Refreshing or when your computer is busy. ) In my openion The best one is mac os

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Alcohol consumption during this developmental period

Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide, and when used excessively it has deleterious effects on almost every organ system.   Many people begin to drink alcohol during adolescence and young adulthood.Alcohol consumption during this developmental period may have profound effects on brain structure and function. Heavy drinking has been shown to affects on brain structure and function.Heavy drinking has been shown to affect the neuropsychological performance of young people and may impair the growth and integrity of certain brain structures. Furthermore, alcohol consumption during adolescence may alter measures of brain functioning, such as blood flow in certain brain regions and electrical brain activities. Not all adolescence and young adults are equally sensitive to the effects of alcohol consumption, however.Moderating factors-such as family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders, gender, age at onset of drinking, drinking patterns, use of other drugs, an d co-occurring psychiatric disorders-may influence the extent to which alcohol consumption interferes with an adolescent’s normal brain development and functioning (Tapert, Calwell, & Burke, 2004-2005).Emerging adulthood, the transitional period between high school and young adulthood, is marked by the formation of identity, the establishment of more mature interpersonal and intimate relationships, and the transition to new adult-type roles. It is also is a time of increased alcohol use and abuse, which can have long-term effects on both physical and psychological well-being and may have implications for the attainment of traditional adult roles.Gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, college, employment, peer and family influences, individual temperament, and attitudes about drinking all influence drinking behavior in this population.Attending college may represent a special risk to emerging adults, as increases in alcohol availability and acceptance of drinking on college c ampuses may lead to increases in heavy drinking among students.The non student population of emerging adults also is an important target for preventive interventions, especially because people in this segment of the population may be less likely to mature out of heavy drinking patterns established during adolescence, thus, the transition from high school to young adulthood appears to be an ideal developmental turning point during which to target interventions.Arnett (2000) referred to the transitional period from high school to young adulthood as â€Å"emerging adulthood.† This stage of life is defined as the period from the end of secondary school through the attainment of adult status (Arnett 2005), covering approximately ages 18 to 25, although it can extend longer. Emerging adulthood is marked by frequent change and exploration. It also is a period of increased alcohol use and abuse. The transition out of high school may be marked by increases in alcohol use and intoxicat ion.Even men who drank heavily in high school may drink more and become intoxicated more often after high school. Drinking patterns during the senior year of high school generally are useful in predicting post-high school drinking behavior, although research results vary. Some studies have found a high degree of individual stability in problem drinking from the early twenties into adulthood, whereas others have notMost emerging adults will outgrow heavy drinking and related problems before adulthood, on their own and without treatment (Marlatt et al. 1998). Research consistently shows that most indexes of alcohol use, and especially heavy drinking, are higher among males than females (O’Malley and Johnston 2002).In addition, the gender disparity in heavy drinking increases between late adolescence (i.e., senior year of high school) and young adulthood. In contrast, the rates of alcohol problems among male and female college students tend to converge (Jackson et al. 2005), alt hough men still report more problems in the public domain compared with women.Racial and ethnic differences in drinking and related problems have been documented in the literature. In general, White and Native American emerging adults drink more than African Americans and Asians, and drinking rates for Hispanics fall in the middle. In addition, in contrast to the peak in drinking among Whites around ages 19-22, heavy drinking among African Americans and Hispanic peaks later and persists longer into adulthood (Caetano and Kaskutas 1995).Some argue that the college campus environment itself encourages heavy drinking (Toomey and Wagenaar 2002). Alcohol use is present at most college social functions, and many students view college as a place to drink excessively. Students experience greater exposure to drinking and encounter higher levels of peer drinking and positive attitudes toward alcohol as they transition from high school to college.Alcohol is the drug of choice among adolescents in the United States. Slightly over 50% have tried alcohol as early as grade 8; by the end of high school, 80% have tried it and 50% are current drinkers. These statistics cause concern because adolescents are particularly susceptible to several of the negative consequences associated with drinking-motor vehicle crashes (Zador, Krawchuk & Voas 2000), sexually transmitted diseases (Bailey et al. 1999), suicide, death and disability.Many observers believe that alcohol advertising contributes to the widespread social acceptability of drinking and thereby fosters both initial and continued use. Television advertising, which is banned in the United States for cigarettes but not for alcohol, is cited as a major source of alcohol advertising available to young people.Large numbers of American youth are exposed to television advertisements for alcohol, particularly beer (Grube & Wallack 1994). Young people typically see these advertisements on sports and certain late night programs popular with youth (Madden & Grube 1994).Youth exposure to advertising in additional venues, as well as through other promotional activities, is also substantial (Taylor 1990). In the United States, most young people are exposed to alcohol advertising in such common locations as supermarkets and corner stores; many also see alcohol advertising in magazines and at concerts and sports events.One study found no relationship between advertising and actual drinking behavior (Wyllie, Zhang & Casswell 1998), while others have suggested a positive relationship between advertising exposures (Grube & Wallack 1994) or positive responses to alcohol advertisements (Wyllie, Zhang & Casswell 1998) and intentions as an adult. In addition, intentions to drink as an adult tap the child’s expectations of engaging in an activity that is normative and legal for adults; they are far removed from the child’s actual drinking behavior or expectation of drinking while under age.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Adolescents On-line

As technology give way to broader telecommunication options, a new form of social community was formed. The Cyber Community has been one of the most intriguing forms of contemporary society and adolescents welcomed it willingly.Today’s adolescents are vicariously participating in online social networks. According to the research made by Wolak and colleague, out of 246 individuals who engaged in close online relationships about 145 do not see each other face to face. Thus, it can be surmised that face to face relationships are not anymore a factor that affects relationships between two persons.Conventional friendships signifies personal contact which is absent in on-line relationships. Nonetheless, both relationships exist so as to provide comfort and help to participants. However, in on-line relationships, the level of trust and confidence is usually lower. While some people see on line relationships to be a way to escape reality, others view this sort of relationship as helpf ul in identifying real personality and attitude.Adolescents use online networking to communicate both with their online friends and offline friends as well. They can also send messages and express themselves more freely and at most times most effectively. Several online games which are predominantly role-playing games in character also extend adolescents capacity to interact with other people.Negotiating and solving conflicts are highlighted in this kind of virtual social community. It also through different virtual social networks that teenagers can gather information about certain areas of interest and views, this is a feature that can be found in forums and blogs.References:Subrahmanyam, K. and Greenfield, P. (2008). Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships. Volume 18 No. 1. Retrieved on October 18, 2008 from www.futureofchildren.orgWolak, J., Mitchell, KJ. And Finkelhor, D. (2002) Close Online Relationships ina National Sample of Adolescents. Retrieved on October 18, 20 08 from